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TYPOLOGY AND CROSS-DATING It must be made clear at the outset that typology is not, strictly speaking, a dating method, but a means of placing artefacts into some kind of order. Climatostratigraphy :: Seabed deposits :: Ice cores 4.4.3. SCIENTIFIC DATING TECHNIQUES The transformation of archaeological dating that began around 1950 continues, but archaeologists may overlook the revolution in scientific dating that had already taken place in geology during the first half of the twentieth century; from this wider perspective, the emergence of radiocarbon dating may seem slightly less dramatic 4.4.1. Dendrochronology :: The application of tree-ring dating 4.4.

BACKGROUND It is increasingly difficult for prehistorians working in the twenty-first century to conceptualise the problems experienced by their predecessors, and approaches to interpretation before the 1960s are consistently criticised. Classification divides things up for the purposes of description, whereas typology seeks to identify and analyse changes that will allow artefacts to be placed into sequences. Sequence dating and seriation These techniques both place assemblages of artefacts into relative order. HISTORICAL DATING Prehistorians sometimes overestimate the accuracy and detail of frameworks based on historical evidence; in practice, early written sources may provide little more information than a scatter of radiocarbon dates. Geological time-scales Accurate knowledge of the age of the Earth was of little direct help to archaeologists, but it emphasised the potential of scientific dating techniques.Relative-dating techniques are nearly always applicable but are not precise and require calibration.Correlation techniques are locally useful and depend on recognition of an event whose age is known, such as a volcanic eruption or a paleomagnetic reversal.Artifacts are usually relatively portable objects such as projectile points, ceramic pots, and relative dating of early human sites by association with index fossils uncovered in the same strata as human evidence.The assumption is that both the people and the species that is now an index fossil must have lived at about the same of a relative dating method that measures somewhat irregular occurring natural phenomena that have been cross-dated with at least one chronometric technique so that the dates are somewhat comparable from sites in one region to another.

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